Audio Notes #359 Worst of Jakarta

a mess


The traffic jam is a mess.

When something is a mess, it is very disorganized, inefficient, or not tidy. A mess can be something that is not clean, like a messy room, or it can be something that is a problem. A mess is something that needs to be cleaned up or taken care of. Notice the following:

  1. The day after the party, the house was a mess.
  2. The airport was a mess. It took a long time to get to my flight.



The new bus system is controversial.

When something is controversial, that means people have two opinions about it and the two opinions are very different. When something is controversial, people often argue about it. Notice the following:

  1. The textbooks are controversial because they teach about sex education.
  2. Guns are controversial. Some people love them. Some people hate them.



The infrastructure in the city is not good.

Infrastructure refers to the basic structures a city or area needs to operate. Infrastructure can include roads, bridges and drainage systems. Here are a few examples:

  1. The mayor promises to spend more on infrastructure to improve the city.
  2. Because the government spends no money on infrastructure, many roads and bridges are in bad condition.

drainage system


The drainage system is not good so we have a lot of flooding.

A drainage systems helps water flow away from a structure or place. To drain mean to remove water. Streets usually have a drainage system so when it rains, water does not collect on the road. Notice the following:

  1. The football field has a new drainage system to remove rainwater.
  2. Leaves and garbage blocked the drainage system, so when it rained, the streets flooded.



We have annual floods.

Annual means yearly. When something happens once a year, it happens annually. Bi-annual means twice a year. Here are a few examples:

  1. The prom is an annual high school dance held each spring.
  2. The company released its annual sales figures.