Audio Notes # 561 Rough and Tough


It is a very rugged and rough place.

When something is rugged, it is not smooth. It is rough. Land that is rugged is very hard to drive across. People who are rugged are very tough and strong. Here are some sample sentences:

  1. The mountains are very rugged and hard to cross.
  2. The field is too rugged to play sports on.


The villagers are very hard-nosed.

People who are hard-nosed are very tough and tough-minded. People who are hard-nosed do not usually cry or complain. Notice the sample sentences:

  1. My father was very hard-nosed; he never looked hurt.
  2. Soldiers need to become hard-nosed in battle.


It is a very inhospitable place.

When a place is inhospitable it is hard to live there. A desert is usually very inhospitable because it is either very hot or cold with no water. Inhospitable can also refer to people. People who are inhospitable are not friendly or helpful. Here are some the sample sentences:

  1. The South Pole is very inhospitable. No cultures lives there.
  2. The locals are inhospitable to tourists.


It is a pretty notorious island.

Notorious means to be famous or well-known, usually for something that is bad. Notice the sample sentences:

  1. Bob is notorious for coming late to all the meetings.
  2. New York is notorious for being overly expensive.


notesWe crossed the desert in a 4x4.

4x4 refers to four-wheel drive, so a 4x4 is a vehicle that is powered by four wheels, that means the engine powers all the four wheels. Cars are usually two-wheel drive, while most trucks and off-terrain vehicles are four-wheel drive. Notice the sample sentence:

  1. Our truck was not a 4x4, so we got stuck in the mud.


It will be a very wholesome vacation.

When something is wholesome it means it is healthy. Wholesome also refers to living a clean and simple life. Notice the sample sentences:

  1. I love the wholesome lifestyle of the countryside.
  2. I am looking for a wholesome girl to marry.


Do not entice the bears with food.

When you entice someone or something, you attract it to do something. For example, you can entice people to eat at a restaurant by offering free food, or a store might entice shoppers by having very low prices. Here are some samples:

  1. My girlfriend enticed me to stay home by cooking me dinner.
  2. It sounds very enticing to join the party, but I am busy.